- D1.1 - Project shared workspace implemented and operational - Confidential
- D1.2 - TRUST reporting year 2 - Confidential
|- D1.3 - Mid-term progress report submitted - Confidential
Parts A and B of the RP1 progress reporting were submitted according to schedule.
|- D2.1 - Cell and system requirements and cell testing protocols
In this deliverable report the technical specifications for the CRESCENDO single cell components are presented. The specifications are based on the automotive requirements and operating conditions. In addition standard testing protocols and sensitivity tests are defined for the purpose of fair comparison between partners, while integrating European harmonised protocols where relevant.
|- D2.2 - Benchmarking commercial SoA non-PGM CCMs and catalyst
The results of benchmarking the performance of commercial PGM-free based CCMs are presented. The results are in good agreement between different partners, despite the use of different testing hardware. The commercial PGM-free CCMs exhibit lower performance than the project performance targets providing 0.15 A/cm2 @,418 V under operating mode 3, while the performance target is 0.6 A/cm2 @ 0,71 V. This report also provides the results of ex situ RDE electrochemical characterisation of the commercial Fe-N-C catalyst.
|- D3.1 - Site Density and Turnover Frequency of Selected Benchmark Catalysts
This deliverable report describes the benchmarking of four non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) containing catalysts, consisting of key performance metrics, such as electrocatalytic mass activity (MA), selectivity, site density (SD) and catalytic turnover frequency (TOF). SD and TOF were evaluated using in situ nitrate reduction and ex situ low temperature CO chemisorption in combination with rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) measurements. The iron coordination environment was determined by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Surface area and pore volume were determined from nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Electrochemical measurements were performed with a RRDE to determine the kinetic current and the selectivity of the catalysts to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The properties of these benchmark catalysts will be used as a baseline to guide needs to increase the SD or TOF to reach the activity targets of the project, and to better assess the activity improvements realised with the new non-PGM catalysts prepared in CRESCENDO.
|- D3.2 - Promising non-PGM catalyst activity showing progress toward WP targets - Confidential
This report describes the development of novel non-PGM cathode catalysts in the first 12 months of CRESCENDO. New catalyst were developed with mass activity of 0.66 A/g @ 0.9 V and single cell current density on oxygen of 12.7 mA/cm2 @ 0.9 V.
|- D3.3 - Electrochemical activity parameters of new catalysts showing progress toward project targets - Confidential
This report describes the development of novel non-PGM cathode catalysts in the first 18 months of CRESCENDO. New catalyst were developed with mass activity of 0.92 A/g @ 0.9 V and single cell current density on oxygen of 15 mA/cm2 @ 0.9 V.
|- D4.1 - Ex situ AST peroxide protocol definition and its application to selected benchmark catalysts
In this deliverable report a novel protocol is established to investigate the effect of H2O2 on the activity for O2 reduction of Fe-N-C catalysts. The novel protocol involves a continuous addition of a peroxide solution with a peristaltic pump. A well-known Fe-N-C catalyst was selected, for which the effect of H2O2 had previously been investigated by adding peroxide instantaneously. This former protocol may however have led to different effects than when peroxide is added continuously, the latter case better reproducing the conditions occurring in an operating PEM fuel cell. Several parameters of this peroxide-accelerated stress test were investigated, such as the rate of addition of peroxide and the pH. The results show that, for a same cumulative amount of peroxide per mass of Fe-N-C catalyst, a similar decrease in ORR activity is observed for the investigated Fe-N-C catalyst when applying either the novel (continuous addition of peroxide) or the former protocol (instantaneous addition of peroxide). The rate at which peroxide is added with the pump plays only a minor role on the deactivation, in the range investigated so far. The pH of the solution in which the Fenton reaction takes place has a role, with more acidic pH leading to slightly less active catalyst than when deionized water is used.
The novel AST with peroxide proved reproducible and allows an easy control of the cumulative amount of peroxide added and also the rate at which it is added. This protocol will now be applied to other FeNC catalysts (benchmarking study) and also to novel catalysts prepared in CRESCENDO.
- D4.2 - Effect of addition of ROS on durability improvement - Confidential
|- D5.1 - Identification of the main performance loss mechanisms seen in layers made from reference catalyst - CONFIDENTIAL
This deliverable report presents results obtained with the Reference hybrid 2% Pt/Fe-N-C catalyst. Layers were created with this catalyst and assembled into membrane electrode assemblies with an active area of 50 cm2. State-of-the-art membranes were used with good conductivity and a thickness of 15 mm. Pt/C was
used as an anode catalyst at a loading of 0.20 mg Pt/cm2. The Reference catalyst layer exhibited low performance, compared to state-of-the-art Pt/C cathode catalyst layers, and is currently 400 mV below the ultimate project target at 600 mA/cm2.
This report contains characterisation studies of the catalyst and a series of diagnostic experiments carried out in 50 cm2 fuel cells to gain better understanding of the limitations of the layers made with the Reference catalyst.
|- D.6.1 – Non-PGM anode catalyst with improved performance - CONFIDENTIAL
This report describes the integration of Ni based bio-inspired molecular catalysts to porous electrode matrices for the development of non-PGM based anodes for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Several electrode materials and deposition strategies were employed. These lead improved performance and set a new benchmark for heterogeneous molecular HOR, by reaching current densities of 130 mA cm-2 at 0.4 V vs RHE (30 mA cm-2 at 0.1 V and 25 A mgNi-1). Characterisation of the molecular based anode through RDE and FE measurements is also reported.
|- D6.2 – Ultra-low PGM anode catalyst with improved resistance to CO poisoning - CONFIDENTIAL
TThis report describes the development of a novel ultra-low PGM anode catalyst with outstanding tolerance to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. When this newly developed 2% Pt/FeNC hybrid catalyst was applied in the anode of a PEMFC, no performance degradation was observed even when cell was operated with hydrogen fuel containing 5000 ppm CO. The performance of this catalyst is closely matching the project targets and will be further optimised to enhance its absolute HOR activity. In parallel, floating electrode studies were carried out using Pt and PtRu catalysts to investigate the CO poisoning behaviour at ultra-low loadings and CO adsorption was modelled using Langmuir-Hill isotherm. It was found that at ultra-low loadings, both Pt and PtRu catalysts lose their activity significantly in the presence of CO. Model fitting revealed that 50% CO surface coverage of Pt is reached with a CO concentration of 14.7 ppm which is less than half of 35.4 ppm needed for PtRu. At a high CO concentration of 200 ppm, more than 90% Pt sites and over 80% PtRu sites are blocked resulting in almost their complete deactivation for hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR).
|- D7.1 - Project Website
The CRESCENDO project website is designed to fulfil project communication and dissemination needs for the benefit of the whole scientific community and the public through relevant information including:
− project overall objectives, partner & work packages information
− project activities: news, meetings
− project progress: technical publications, conference presentations, public domain reports
− project resources: links, related events …
− project contact information and newsletter subscription
All the partners will collectively participate in the dissemination objective of the website by providing up-to-date information
|- D7.2 - Dissemination and knowledge management protocol - Confidential
This report presents the dissemination protocol for the CRESCENDO project, the procedure for “Open Access” to peer reviewed research articles, internal rules, information on support from the EU members and the strategy for Knowledge Management within the project.
|- D7.4 - Organisation of an International Conference “Challenges for Zero Platinum for Oxygen Reduction and Hydrogen Oxidation"
CRESCENDO jointly organised with the H2020 CREATE project (http://www.create-h2020energy.eu) the second edition of the Electrolysis and Fuel Cell Discussions conference, EFCD2019, dedicated to catalysts with minimum amount of Critical Raw Materials, and in particular of Platinum Group Metals.
This highly successful international conference was held at La Grande Motte in France, 15-18 September 2019. Attended by 160 international
participants, it provided the opportunity to apprise the state of the art, showcase CRESCENDO and CREATE results and interact with other FCHJU/H2020 funded projects, including PEGASUS, which was invited toshare a special session