- D1.1 - Project shared workspace implemented and operational - CONFIDENTIAL
To fulfil two fundamental internal project communication requirements: i) efficient exchange between partners of information about CRESCENDO project ii) decentralised and secured archiving of the documents generated, one independent and secured web-based communication tool: Project Shared Workplace – PSW has been implemented with a restricted access for project partners only. Among all the functionalities installed on this PSW, for now partners have a total access to the following tools: Document sharing and archiving ; Meeting organization ; General project communication ; Online working document ;  Project management.
The PSW maintenance is therefore an on-going activity that will go along with the project lifetime
- D1.2 - TRUST reporting year 2 - CONFIDENTIAL
The TRUST on-line data collection application was populated with results on single cell performance on H2/air of a membrane electrode assembly comprising a non-PGM cathode catalyst, and Pt anode catalyst.
- D1.3 - Mid-term progress report submitted - CONFIDENTIAL
Parts A and B of the RP1 progress reporting were submitted according to schedule.
- D1.4 - TRUST reporting year 3 - CONFIDENTIAL
The TRUST on-line data collection application was populated with results on single cell performance on H2/air of a membrane electrode assembly comprising a non-PGM cathode catalyst, and Pt anode catalyst.

- D2.1 - Cell and system requirements and cell testing protocols
In this deliverable report the technical specifications for the CRESCENDO single cell components are presented. The specifications are based on the automotive requirements and operating conditions. In addition standard testing protocols and sensitivity tests are defined for the purpose of fair comparison between partners, while integrating European harmonised protocols where relevant.
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- D2.2 - Benchmarking commercial SoA non-PGM CCMs and catalyst
The results of benchmarking the performance of commercial PGM-free based CCMs are presented. The results are in good agreement between different partners, despite the use of different testing hardware. The commercial PGM-free CCMs exhibit lower performance than the project performance targets providing 0.15 A/cm2 @,418 V under operating mode 3, while the performance target is 0.6 A/cm2 @ 0,71 V. This report also provides the results of ex situ RDE electrochemical characterisation of the commercial Fe-N-C catalyst.
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- D3.1 - Site Density and Turnover Frequency of Selected Benchmark Catalysts
This deliverable report describes the benchmarking of four non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) containing catalysts, consisting of key performance metrics, such as electrocatalytic mass activity (MA), selectivity, site density (SD) and catalytic turnover frequency (TOF). SD and TOF were evaluated using in situ nitrate reduction and ex situ low temperature CO chemisorption in combination with rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) measurements. The iron coordination environment was determined by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Surface area and pore volume were determined from nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Electrochemical measurements were performed with a RRDE to determine the kinetic current and the selectivity of the catalysts to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The properties of these benchmark catalysts will be used as a baseline to guide needs to increase the SD or TOF to reach the activity targets of the project, and to better assess the activity improvements realised with the new non-PGM catalysts prepared in CRESCENDO.
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- D3.2 - Promising non-PGM catalyst activity showing progress toward WP targets - CONFIDENTIAL
This report describes the development of novel non-PGM cathode catalysts in the first 12 months of CRESCENDO. New catalyst were developed with mass activity of 0.66 A/g @ 0.9 V and single cell current density on oxygen of 12.7 mA/cm2 @ 0.9 V.
- D3.3 - Electrochemical activity parameters of new catalysts showing progress toward project targets - CONFIDENTIAL
This report describes the development of novel non-PGM cathode catalysts in the first 18 months of CRESCENDO. New catalyst were developed with mass activity of 0.92 A/g @ 0.9 V and single cell current density on oxygen of 15 mA/cm2 @ 0.9 V.

- D4.1 - Ex situ AST peroxide protocol definition and its application to selected benchmark catalysts
In this deliverable report a novel protocol is established to investigate the effect of H2O2 on the activity for O2 reduction of Fe-N-C catalysts. The novel protocol involves a continuous addition of a peroxide solution with a peristaltic pump. A well-known Fe-N-C catalyst was selected, for which the effect of H2O2 had previously been investigated by adding peroxide instantaneously. This former protocol may however have led to different effects than when peroxide is added continuously, the latter case better reproducing the conditions occurring in an operating PEM fuel cell. Several parameters of this peroxide-accelerated stress test were investigated, such as the rate of addition of peroxide and the pH. The results show that, for a same cumulative amount of peroxide per mass of Fe-N-C catalyst, a similar decrease in ORR activity is observed for the investigated Fe-N-C catalyst when applying either the novel (continuous addition of peroxide) or the former protocol (instantaneous addition of peroxide). The rate at which peroxide is added with the pump plays only a minor role on the deactivation, in the range investigated so far. The pH of the solution in which the Fenton reaction takes place has a role, with more acidic pH leading to slightly less active catalyst than when deionized water is used.
The novel AST with peroxide proved reproducible and allows an easy control of the cumulative amount of peroxide added and also the rate at which it is added. This protocol will now be applied to other FeNC catalysts (benchmarking study) and also to novel catalysts prepared in CRESCENDO.

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- D4.2 - Effect of addition of ROS on durability improvement - CONFIDENTIAL
A reference Fe-N-C catalyst, containing Fe mostly in the form of atomically-dispersed FeNx active sites for oxygen reduction reaction, was modified by addition of targeted solid-state catalytic ROS scavengers. The benefit toward improving the durability of the reference Fe-N-C material was assessed, first via ex situ peroxide degradation protocol (see D4.1). The results identify lower peroxide production and improved durability with a selected FeNC/additive composite. Future work will focus on more advanced functionalisation of FeNC to improve the additive dispersion and binding to FeNC, as well as verifying improved durability in fuel cell testing of such PGM-free composites.

- D.4.3 - Report on sacrificial organic compounds as ROS scavengers to actively protect Me-N-C catalysts against H2O2 - CONFIDENTIAL
A model Fe-N-C catalyst, containing Fe exclusively in the form of atomically-dispersed FeNx active sites for oxygen reduction reaction, was subjected to the ex situ peroxide degradation protocol (see Deliverable D4.1), in absence and then in presence of three different organic radical scavengers, which were selected for their reported antioxidant properties in the field of chemistry and biochemistry. The benefit toward improved stability of the reference Fe-N-C material after exposure to large amount of H2O2 was assessed by comparing the ORR activity of the Fe-N-C catalyst before and after the ex situ accelerated stress test (AST) peroxide protocol. Initial promising results were obtained with one of the organic radical scavengers. Its addition during the peroxide accelerated stress test resulted in reduced Fenton reactions on the model FeNC catalyst, as deduced from lower %H2O2 during ORR after the AST, when compared to the same FeNC catalyst in absence of the organic radical scavenger during the AST.


- D5.1 - Identification of the main performance loss mechanisms seen in layers made from reference catalyst - CONFIDENTIAL
This deliverable report presents results obtained with the Reference hybrid 2% Pt/Fe-N-C catalyst. Layers were created with this catalyst and assembled into membrane electrode assemblies with an active area of 50 cm2. State-of-the-art membranes were used with good conductivity and a thickness of 15 mm. Pt/C was
used as an anode catalyst at a loading of 0.20 mg Pt/cm2. The Reference catalyst layer exhibited low performance, compared to state-of-the-art Pt/C cathode catalyst layers, and is currently 400 mV below the ultimate project target at 600 mA/cm2.
This report contains characterisation studies of the catalyst and a series of diagnostic experiments carried out in 50 cm2 fuel cells to gain better understanding of the limitations of the layers made with the Reference catalyst.

- D5.2 - Quantification of the performance improvement achieved by rational re-design of layers using the Reference catalyst - CONFIDENTIAL
This deliverable report presents a detailed optimisation of the cathode catalyst layer that has led to the highest performance in the project so far. This was achieved in 50 cm2 single cells using a second, scaled-up batch of the project Reference hybrid 2%Pt/Fe-N-C catalyst. It was observed that small changes in synthesis led to significant physical differences between the first and second batches of the project Reference catalyst. This was a significant learning exercise that highlights the difficulties in scaling up this type of catalyst. This report gives an in-depth characterisation of the properties of the catalyst and catalyst layers made from the project Reference catalyst, building on methods described in D5.1. It was deduced that a lack of porosity below 100 nm led to low performance at medium to high current densities. It was possible to improve performance, however, with the use of different solvent contents during the inkmaking step and with the addition of different additives. This approach was able to increase the porosity in the catalyst layer at

- D.6.1 – Non-PGM anode catalyst with improved performance - CONFIDENTIAL
This report describes the integration of Ni based bio-inspired molecular catalysts to porous electrode matrices for the development of non-PGM based anodes for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Several electrode materials and deposition strategies were employed. These lead improved performance and set a new benchmark for heterogeneous molecular HOR, by reaching current densities of 130 mA cm-2 at 0.4 V vs RHE (30 mA cm-2 at 0.1 V and 25 A mgNi-1). Characterisation of the molecular based anode through RDE and FE measurements is also reported.

- D6.2 – Ultra-low PGM anode catalyst with improved resistance to CO poisoning - CONFIDENTIAL
This report describes the development of a novel ultra-low PGM anode catalyst with outstanding tolerance to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. When this newly developed catalyst was applied in the anode of a PEMFC, no performance degradation was observed even when cell was operated with hydrogen fuel containing 5000 ppm CO. The performance of this catalyst is closely matching the project targets and will be further optimised to enhance its absolute HOR activity. In parallel, floating electrode studies were carried out using Pt and PtRu catalysts to investigate the CO poisoning behaviour at ultra-low loadings and CO adsorption was modelled using Langmuir-Hill isotherm. It was found that at ultra-low loadings, both Pt and PtRu catalysts lose their activity significantly in the presence of CO. Model fitting revealed that 50% CO surface coverage of Pt is reached with a CO concentration of 14.7 ppm which is less than half of 35.4 ppm needed for PtRu. At a high CO concentration of 200 ppm, more than 90% Pt sites and over 80% PtRu sites are blocked resulting in almost their complete deactivation for hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR).

- D6.3 – Report on activity, resistance to poisoning and stability under cell reversal conditions of down selected non-PGM and ultra-low PGM anode catalyst - CONFIDENTIAL
This report describes the characterisation of the down selected non-PGM and ultra-low PGM anode catalyst for the Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction (HOR) developed in the first part of the CRESCENDO project. The first part of the report describes the performances for hydrogen oxidation obtained with the Ni based bio-inspired catalyst at CNT modified electrode in aqueous acidic electrolyte (half-cell and floating electrode configuration) as well as in MEA configuration (hydrogen pump). The second part focuses on the characterisation of the ultra-low loading anode, tested in floating electrode configuration and directly in an H2-O2 fuel cell setup. 

- D7.1 - Project Website
The CRESCENDO project website is designed to fulfil project communication and dissemination needs for the benefit of the whole scientific community and the public through relevant information including:
− project overall objectives, partner & work packages information
− project activities: news, meetings
− project progress: technical publications, conference presentations, public domain reports
− project resources: links, related events …
− project contact information and newsletter subscription
All the partners will collectively participate in the dissemination objective of the website by providing up-to-date information

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- D7.2 - Dissemination and knowledge management protocol - CONFIDENTIAL
This report presents the dissemination protocol for the CRESCENDO project, the procedure for “Open Access” to peer reviewed research articles, internal rules, information on support from the EU members and the strategy for Knowledge Management within the project.
- D7.3 – Dissemination and Communication bundle comprising a package of visual identity tools and project brochure, 2 publications in international journals, 4 conference presentations, 2 annual newsletters
During the first 24 months of the CRESCENDO project the consortium undertook various dissemination and communication measures. Target groups include industry, academia, government bodies and the public.
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- D7.4 - Organisation of an International Conference “Challenges for Zero Platinum for Oxygen Reduction and Hydrogen Oxidation"
CRESCENDO jointly organised with the H2020 CREATE project ( the second edition of the Electrolysis and Fuel Cell Discussions conference, EFCD2019, dedicated to catalysts with minimum amount of Critical Raw Materials, and in particular of Platinum Group Metals.
This highly successful international conference was held at La Grande Motte in France, 15-18 September 2019. Attended by 160 international
participants, it provided the opportunity to apprise the state of the art, showcase CRESCENDO and CREATE results and interact with other FCHJU/H2020 funded projects, including PEGASUS, which was invited toshare a special session

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